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No end to cholera without basic water, sanitation and hygiene
Maggie Montgomery | Megan Wilson Jones | Ibrahim Kabole | Rick Johnston | Bruce Gordon
Date of Publication:
Jun 01, 2018
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Safe water, sanitation and hygiene are crucial in protecting people from cholera. Improving water and sanitation services and general hygiene have proven effective in controlling and eliminating cholera in many countries. In the 47 low- and middle-income countries affected by cholera, only 79% and 44% of the population uses basic water and sanita- tion services, respectively, compared to 94% and 79% in low- and middle- income countries without cholera. A shared vision and unanimous agreement among Member States, partners and donors to prioritize broader social and environmental determinants of health, including water, sanitation and hygiene, is needed to end cholera.
A Comparative Analysis of Vibrio cholerae Contamination in Point-of-Drinking and Source Water in a Low-Income Urban Community, Bangladesh
Jannatul Ferdous | Rebeca Sultana | Ridwan B. Rashid | Md Tasnimuzzaman | Andreas Nordland | Anowara Begum | Peter K. M. Jensen
Date of Publication:
Frontiers in Microbiology
Bangladesh is a cholera-endemic country. Toxigenic and non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) can cause cholera and cholera-like diarrheal illness and outbreaks. Drinking water is one of the primary routes of cholera transmission in Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to conduct a comparative assessment of the presence of V. cholerae between point-of-drinking water and source water, and to investigate the variability of virulence profile using molecular methods of a densely populated low-income settlement of Dhaka, Bangladesh. V. cholerae was detected in 10% of point-of-drinking water samples and in 9% of source water samples. Twenty-three percent of households and 38% of the sources were positive for V. cholerae in at least one visit. Samples collected from point-of-drinking and linked sources in a 7 day interval showed significantly higher odds (P < 0.05) of V. cholerae presence in point-of-drinking compared to source [OR = 17.24 (95% CI = 7.14–42.89)] water. Based on the 7 day interval data, 53% (17/32) of source water samples were negative for V. cholerae while linked point-of-drinking water samples were positive. There were significantly higher odds (p < 0.05) of the presence of V. cholerae O1 [OR = 9.13 (95% CI = 2.85–29.26)] and V. cholerae O139 [OR = 4.73 (95% CI = 1.19–18.79)] in source water samples than in point-of-drinking water samples. Contamination of water at the point-of-drinking is less likely to depend on the contamination at the water source. Hygiene education interventions and programs should focus and emphasize on water at the point-of-drinking, including repeated cleaning of drinking vessels, which is of paramount importance in preventing cholera.